Assessing the Benefits and Costs of Nature-Based Solutions for Climate Resilience: A Guideline for Project Developers
Fishermen in Indonesia know it from experience: the country’s mangroves are not just stabilizing an eroding coastline and preventing coastal flooding; they are also important carbon sinks, supporting marine biodiversity and local fisheries. The erosion of coastlines and a sharp decline in annual income for fishing households — 5 to 10 times the rate of mangrove loss– are dire consequences when these coastal forests disappear. As climate change intensifies and ecosystems are degraded, countries like Indonesia are facing increasingly complex challenges such as extreme temperatures and flooding. Nature-based Solutions (NBS) for climate resilience, such as mangroves, urban green spaces, and inland wetlands, offer economical strategies to mitigate these risks, while also sustaining biodiversity and other important ecosystem services.